Proteomics Sample Preparation
Covaris Adaptive Focused Acoustics® (AFA®) technology provides the most accurate and reproducible sample preparation solution for proteins, enabling non-contact, highly efficient extraction and processing for any downstream analysis method.
- Protein Extraction and Processing For Mass Spectrometry
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Reproducible, Hands-free Protein Sample Preparation with Covaris AFA®
Sample preparation can significantly impact the quality of data in both research and clinical fields. This is especially true in relation to proteomics sample preparation, as proteins are an extremely diverse community of macromolecules, present in an extraordinarily wide range of concentrations, and they cannot be amplified.
Many methods and protocols to isolate proteins are available, but none have the same capabilities as AFA for:
- Reducing human error
- Decreasing hands-on time
- Increasing speed and throughput
- Significantly improving reproducibility and reliability,
- Covering the diversity of samples and situations.
Covaris AFA protein sample preparation can accommodate every sample type for any downstream application in a variety of volumes and throughputs, while still leaving the choice of buffers and clean-up methods open. Many laboratories need automated solutions for protein sample preparation with better efficiency and higher quality results. Covaris Focused-ultrasonicators are proving to be an extremely robust and flexible solution with growing adoption in the proteomics space.
Watch the video testimonial from Dr. Fabian Coscia at the Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research to learn how they developed a reproducible & automated sample preparation solution for clinical proteomics with Covaris Focused-ultrasonicator.
Protein Extraction and Processing For Mass Spectrometry
Covaris has developed workflows and protocols with world leading laboratories looking for improved extraction, automated parallel processing and sample input decrease. Mass spectrometry is the downstream analytical method of choice, but the workflows could be applied to other applications such as western blotting, ELISA or multiplex assays.
Single Pot extraction using SP3 clean-up
In this workflow used on mammalian cells (1,000 to 400,000) and fresh frozen tissues below 10mg, samples are collected and transferred into a Covaris vessel where they are lysed in the desired buffer using AFA. Following lysis, alkylation and reduction reagents are added; AFA can be used again for efficient mixing and enhanced preparation for digestion. SP3 (Single Pot Solid Phase Sample Preparation) beads are added for the washing steps (Hugues et al., Mol Sys Biol, 2014). Ultimately, trypsin or any appropriate enzyme can be added for digestion.
The exact protocol described above was developed in the publication Automated sample preparation with SP3 for low‐input clinical proteomics by Mueller et al. This protocol can also be developed using the AFA-TUBE™ plates and strips or adapted into other Covaris tubes . To learn more about developing this protocol, contact firstname.lastname@example.org.
Paraffin Embedded Laser Capture Microdissection using magnetic beads
As in the previous workflow, samples are processed in a single Covaris vessel. This workflow has been designed and optimized in the AFA-TUBE™ TPX plate. Samples are laser dissected and then transferred into the plate.
This workflow uses the same TLB buffer, and also works with magnetic beads. A similar protocol has been developed in collaboration with Matthias Mann's research groups for FFPE scrolls, read more in our Application Note. To learn more about developing these protocols, contact email@example.com.
Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Scrolls using S-Trap
Our truXTRAC FFPE products offer solutions for DNA, RNA and protein extraction. For proteomics applications, we partnered with ProtiFi to address challenges encountered when performing protein extraction from archived FFPE tissues. Briefly, scrolls (or curls) are lysed in a Covaris tube with 5% SDS. The combination of AFA and SDS will streamline paraffin removal and emulsification while efficiently solubilizing all types of proteins. Decrosslinking is performed in the same tube. When the last AFA step is performed, the sample is transferred onto the ProtiFi S-Trap column, where proteins are reduced and digested. Due to the particular design of the column, SDS is fully removed prior to MS analysis.
Enhanced trypsin digestion using AFA® for improved recovery of membrane proteins
AFA can be used for highly controlled dissociation of membranes followed by enhanced digestion of the membrane-associated proteins. This workflow has been optimized with an urea-based buffer, like our Total Protein TP buffer . To learn more about developing this protocol, contact firstname.lastname@example.org
AFA for other proteomics downstream applications
AFA has shown to be efficient in a wide variety of downstream analytical methods with different starting materials. Plants, bacteria, yeast, and hard mammalian tissue like muscle have been successfully processed with Focused-ultrasonicators. The controlled and precise energy delivery makes AFA perfect for the preparation and preservation of low abundance or fragile subpopulations of proteins like phosphoproteins.
Some examples are given below - please refer to our Cell Lysis Brochure for a more comprehensive overview.
1. Protein Extraction and Processing for SDS-PAGE and Antibody-based Assays
For SDS-PAGE applications, including western blotting, cells can be processed as already described or collected directly in gel loading buffers like Laemmli and transferred to AFA vessels for acoustic disruption. The process can be adapted to work for different volumes based on the starting material (6-well to 96-well plates). The resulting lysate can then be loaded directly onto the gel. For ELISA and other antibody-based multiplexed assays, cells can be lysed in aqueous buffers or detergent free buffers, for full compatibility with the required downstream reagents.
2. Plants, Yeasts, Bacteria and other non-mammalian sample types
Sample preparation is always about optimization and there are a significant number of parameters that can affect the efficiency of protein recovery. In addition, some organisms have very rigid membrane constituents, others can have a cell wall on top of their membrane, and the insolubility of some components can drastically decrease the quantity of desired biomolecules. AFA has been shown efficiently process difficult materials such as plants [1-3], bacteria [4,5], or yeast [6,7].
- Probing the global kinome and phosphoproteome in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii via sequential enrichment and quantitative proteomics. E Werth et al., The Plant Journal (2017) 89, 416–426 DOI: 10.1111/tpj.13384
- The phosphorylated redox proteome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: Revealing novel means for regulation of protein structure and function. McConnell et al., Redox Biology Volume 17, July 2018, Pages 35-46 DOI: doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2018.04.003
- Acoustic Technology for High-Performance Disruption and Extraction of Plant Proteins. M Toorchi et al., Journal of Proteome Research 2008, 7, 3035–3041. DOI: 10.1021/pr800012c
- The Role of Cadaverine Synthesis on Pneumococcal Capsule and Protein Expression MF Nakamya et al., Med Sci (Basel). 2018 Jan 19;6(1). DOI: 10.3390/medsci6010008
- An ultra scale-down approach to study the interaction of fermentation, homogenisation and centrifugation for antibody fragment recovery from rec E. coli. Q Li et al., Biotechnology and Bioengineering, 2013 Aug;110(8):2150-60 DOI: 10.1002/bit.24891
- A Microscale Yeast Cell Disruption Technique for Integrated Process Development Strategies. MD Wenger et al., Biotechnol. Prog. 2008, 24, 606−614. DOI:10.1021/bp070359s
- Development of a high-throughput microscale cell disruption platform for Pichia pastoris in rapid bioprocess design. Blaha et al., Biotechnol Prog. 2018 Jan;34(1):130-140. DOI:10.1002/btpr.2555
- Ultrasensitive proteome analysis using paramagnetic bead technology. CS Hughes, et al. Mol Syst Biol. 2014;10:757. DOI: 10.15252/msb.20145625